Teferi is great for counters. nothing important happened? eot teferi. Then eot other bombs as the situation allows.
talrand is more of a spellslinger deck. patron of the moon is more of a silly deck. heidar is ok but sort of bland. tomorrow is pretty weak compared to other draw engines. arcanis is probably the best of those options, however he's generally a big target compared to teferi. Or at least it's easier to protect teferi when he enters the battlefield.
Eh. He's a great combo general and all but he draws hate like it's his job. If whatever meta he plays in doesn't know about his combo potential than he's a great choice. Otherwise it's not the best for someone looking for a heavy control/draw/fatties type mono-blue deck.
Of the one's you said you were interested in I'd choose either Tomorrow or Arcanis. Those will provide a solid engine for whatever kind of deck you're looking for. Thassa, God of the Sea provides a similar effect.
Out of your list, arcanis gets my vote. With proper setup like the obligatory Illusionist's Bracers and Thousand-Year Elixir, he can easily out gun any other deck in card draw. He has a relevant second ability that in the event of a favorable wrath, you can bounce him to save some casting cost.
I'd do a tap/untap deck with him, running tight control. Arcanis is the only Mono U commander that will easily out draw Azami, Lady of Scrolls.
Tomorrow or venser gets my second pick, buy tomorrow's cost is a bit ugly, considering it only has one ability, albeit powerful. Venser is only good if you can cycle him back in your hand. Once he dies he's a 6cmc counter, which is ugly, and then 8 the next time..
Speaking from 3 years of just strictly mono-U experience (my playgroup prefers to invest heavily into their deck, causing us to have only 1 deck for the most part),Teferi, mage of zhalfir is the way to go. I've played Azami, lady of scrolls a bit, played Arcanis, the omnipotent VERY heavily, and tried like 10 other most used mono-U generals out there and found them to be not quite like Teferi. General hate is more or less not truly associated with how good it plays, but rather how much fear is generated amongst the playgroup toward a particular general. In this case however, the amount of hate Teferi gets is definitely under what he should be recieving. People are constantly talking about Niv-Mizzet as the combo king and a few others that step into his shadow, but really what is a lot more scary is a general that says "nope, you can't even stop me from locking you out permanently". So, my vote goes toward Teferi.
On topic: Arcanis out of the commanders you mentioned. Arcanis is basicly a niv-mizzet with only one trump card that instant wins, rather than five. The pros of running arcanis over Niv is he attracts much less hate, and he works really well even if your Mind over matter gets tucked or whatever. Plus he gets points for being unterminusable!
For the kind of deck you're describing, Patron and Talrand are fairly poor choices. Heidar and Arcanis would both be better choices, but I have to agree with others that have pointed out how well Thassa goes with a control/fatties combo. Toss in the Bident and Coastal Piracy so the fatties give you draw power and you should be good.
Azami, Venser, and Vindillion Clique are the three best mono-u commanders IMO.
This. I run all 3 in my mono-U so that I can just pick whichever one I want to play. Generally speaking it's Venser, and there's enough main deck support that bouncing him is rarely an issue (Equilibrium, Crystal Shard, Erratic Portal and Riptide Laboratory). It's pretty excellent being the guy at the table who can more or less ALWAYS stop the over-aggressive combo player from going off on his turn. Teferi is the other big wizard in the tribe.